A Longitudinal Study of Factors that Influence Use of Long-Term Care Services in Singapore

A Longitudinal Study of Factors that Influence Use of Long-Term Care Services in Singapore is a national survey, conducted in 2011-12, of 1586 community-dwelling older Singaporeans who had been referred to a specific type of long-term care (LTC) service after a hospitalization episode. Three waves of face-to-face interviews with care recipients/proxies and their informal caregivers were conducted to better understand the knowledge and perception of LTC services and the utilization of these services over an 18-month period.

Specific objectives

  1. Examine the factors that are associated with the use of formal LTC services.
  2. Identify the profile of the recipients of care.
  3. Examine the perceptions of LTC services among users and non-users.
  4. Examine effect of use/non-use on subsequent health status, other service use, quality of life and coping strategies.
  5. Understand caregiver needs and how they change over time.
  6. Investigate the determinants of change in use of LTC services and choice of services over time.
  7. Use the collected data to better understand the mechanism of demand of formal LTC services for modelling and projections.


A nationally representative random sample of 4402 Singaporean citizens or permanent residents who were discharged from hospital between December 2011 and July 2012 and their caregivers was contacted to participate in the survey. Everyone in the sample, after a hospitalization episode, had been referred by Agency for Integrated Care (AIC) to a specific type of LTC service which could be a centre-based service (day rehabilitation care and dementia day care), home-based service (home medical, nursing and/or therapy), or a nursing home. After excluding those who had passed away before contacting for the survey (n=656), the overall response rate of the baseline wave of the survey was 43% (n=1586). There was no difference in the demographic and social-economic characteristics between respondents and non-respondents. Baseline (Wave 1) face-to-face interviews were conducted with dyads of care recipient/proxy and his/her primary caregiver to collect information on care recipients’ demographic, health status, financial resources, living arrangement, and knowledge and awareness of LTC services. These surveys were repeated 6 months (Wave 2) and 12 months later (Wave 3).


Agency for Integrated Care (AIC), Singapore