A Research Blog

Dengue fever, caused by the dengue virus, is a tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes that threatens more than one third of the worldwide population, making it one of the most important arboviruses in the world. They have important economic consequences because of the burden to hospitals, work absenteeism and risk of death for severe symptomatic cases.

Dengue viruses are primarily transmitted from human-to-human by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. While the mechanisms leading to dengue infection in humans have been defined, there is a lack of knowledge on how dengue viruses influence mosquito transmission and infection, or the genetic factors that affect virus replication in mosquitoes.

With this quest in mind, researchers at Duke-NUS Medical School’s Emerging Infectious Disease Programme led by Assistant Professor Julien Pompon and Professor Mariano A Garcia-Blanco set out to identify the viral determinants of transmission, as well as the mechanism by which dengue viruses harness evolution to cycle between the two hosts.

Mosquitoes

Dengue and chikungunya are mosquito-borne diseases that are currently re-emerging as public health burdens worldwide. Annually, over 390 million people are infected with dengue, while chikungunya periodically emerges in highly populated areas. The primary vector for the two diseases is Aedes aegypti, a mosquito that thrives in domestic areas.

 Since there is no vaccine for these arboviruses, vector control remains the best way to control the incidence of these diseases. In the 1960s, the Singapore government started a vector control campaign in order to prevent the transmission of dengue by Aedes aegypti. Measures included mosquito and clinical surveillance, public health education, community participation, fines for allowing mosquito breeding, among others. While this campaign drastically reduced the number of households with Aedes mosquitoes and the incidence of dengue in Singapore until the 1990s, dengue epidemics have since increased in frequency, and chikungunya re-emerged in 2008.

 To better understand this paradoxical situation Principal Research Scientist Ian Mendenhall and Assistant Professor Julien Pompon from Duke-NUS Medical School (Duke-NUS) led research that investigated whether peridomestic areas, or areas near inhabited areas, could be the cause or source of these diseases.

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