Banner Image for Directory


Kwa Lay Hoon, Andrea(Ke Liyun)

Associate Professor


Research Interests: Critical care medicine, infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance research.  

Dr Kwa's pet research topics in infectious diseases/ antimicrobial resistance are:

1) Elucidation of multiple antibiotics in combination against extreme drug resistant bacteria in an one compartment static in-vitro model or a dyamic in-vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic two-compartmental model simulating fluctuating clinically achievable antibiotic concentrations.

2) Population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials

3) Molecular diagnostics in fungal diseases and anti-fungal resistance.

4) Risk factors and outcomes via statistical modelling.

5) Health services research involving antimicrobial stewardships.  

Liew, Y. X., Lee, W., Loh, J.C., Cai, Y., Tang, S.S., Lim, C.L., Teo, J., Ong, R.W., Kwa, A.L. and Chlebicki, M.P. (2012) Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme on patient safety in Singapore General Hospital. Int J Antimicrob Agents. Jul;40(1):55-60. Epub 2012 May 14. 

Teo, J., Cai, Y., Tang, S., Lee, W., Tan, T.Y., Tan, T.T. and Kwa, A.L. (2012) Risk factors, molecular epidemiology and outcomes of ertapenem-resistant, carbapenem-susceptibleEnterobacteriaceae: a case-case-control study. PLoS One. 7(3):e34254. Epub 2012 Mar 26.  

Lim, T.P., Lee, W., Tan, T.Y., Sasikala, S., Teo, J., Hsu, L.Y., Tan, T.T., Syahidah, N. and Kwa, A.L. (2011) Effective antibiotics in combination against extreme drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with decreased susceptibility to polymyxin B. PLoS One. 6(12):e28177. Epub 2011 Dec 5.  

Kwa, A.L., Abdelraouf, K., Low, J.G. and Tam, V.H. (2011) Pharmacokinetics of polymyxin B in a patient with renal insufficiency: a case report.  Clin Infect Dis. May;52(10):1280-1. 

Lim, T.P., Tan, T.Y., Lee, W., Sasikala, S., Tan, T.T., Hsu, L.Y. and Kwa, A.L. (2011)  In-vitro activity of polymyxin B, rifampicin, tigecycline alone and in combination against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Singapore.  PLoS One. Apr 21;6(4):e18485.  

Roberts, J.A., Kwa, A., Montakantikul, P., Gomersall, C., Kuti, J.L. and Nicolau, D.P. (2011) Pharmacodynamic profiling of intravenous antibiotics against prevalent Gram-negative organisms across the globe: the PASSPORT Program-Asia-Pacific Region.  Int J Antimicrob Agents. Mar;37(3):225-9.

Tan, T.Y., Lim, T.P., Lee, W.H., Sasikala, S., Hsu, L.Y. and Kwa, A.L. (2011) In vitro antibiotic synergy in extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: the effect of testing by time-kill, checkerboard, and Etest methods.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Jan;55(1):436-8. 

Kwa, A.L., Sprung, J. and Jelliffe, R.W. (2008)  Population Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic remodelling of 3-compartmental epidural lidocaine in geriatric patients: A comparison between placebo and dopamine group. Ther Drug MonitJun;30(3):379-89.  

Lodise, T., Kwa, A.L., Cosler, L., Gupta, R. and Smith, R.P. (2007) Beta-lactam and  Macrolide Combination Therapy vs. Fluoroquinolone Monotherapy in Veteran Affairs’ Patients with Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia.   Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Nov;51(11):3977-82. 

Kwa, A.L., Lim, T.P., Low, J.G., Hou, J., Kurup, A., Prince, R.A. and Tam, V.H. (2008) Pharmacokinetics of polymyxin B1 in patients with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis Feb 60(2):163-7.

Lim, T.P., Kwa, A.L. and Tam, V.H. (2008) Quantitative Assessment of Combination Antibiotic Therapy for Pan-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Aug;52(8):2898-904.