Banner Image for Directory


Leopold Schmetterer


Scientific Director and Head of Ocular Imaging, Singapore Eye Research Institute 


Education Qualifications: MSc, PhD

Professor Schmetterer is the Scientific Director and Head of Ocular Imaging at SERI. His research interests span a wide range of imaging from development of novel technology towards applications in preclinical research and clinics. Professor Schmetterer is also interested in clinical trials and is involved in many studies in retina, glaucoma, cornea and dry eye.

He has published more than 300 peer reviewed publications; was invited for more than 200 lectures, including more than 15 key note lectures; and been awarded more than 35 million SGD in research grant funding. He is a member of the Editorial Boards of Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Scientific Reports, Acta Ophthalmologica, Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Current Eye Research and five other journals, as well as ad-hoc reviewers for more than 40 journals.


Professional Appointments and Committee Memberships:

  • Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University
  • Professor (Honorary) of Ophthalmology, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University
  • Visiting Professor, Institute of Ophthalmology, Basel, Switzerland
  • Professorship in Vienna on hold (3 years) (2016 - 2019)


  • Gold Fellow, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) (2019)
  • Honorary degree, Technical University, Bucharest (2019)
  • Gold Medal, Acta Ophthalmoologica (2017)
  • Honorary degree, Carol Davila University, Bucharest (2016)
  • Hans Goldmann Medal, Switzerland (2015)
  • International Bach Lecture, Leipzig (2014)
  • Silver Fellow, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) (2014)
  • Visionary of the Quarter, European Vision Institute (2011)
  • First prize, International MSD Award (2002)
  • Austrian Höchst Award (1998)

Leadership positions / roles in Education: 

  • Mentor to undergraduate students and post-graduate (practicing clinicians)

Research Interests: Imaging studies in ophthalmology ranging from glaucoma, medical retina to dry eye syndrome, ocular pharmacology and clinical trials

Selected Publications:

Compensation of retinal nerve fibre layer thickness as assessed using optical coherence tomography based on anatomical confounders. Chua J, Schwarzhans F, Nguyen DQ, Tham YC, Sia JT, Lim C, Mathijia S, Cheung C, Tin A, Fischer G, Cheng CY, Vass C, Schmetterer L. Br J Ophthalmol. 2019.

Deep learning in ophthalmology: The technical and clinical considerations. Ting DSW, Peng L, Varadarajan AV, Keane PA, Burlina PM, Chiang MF, Schmetterer L, Pasquale LR, Bressler NM, Webster DR, Abramoff M, Wong TY. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2019 Sep;72:100759.

Impact of hypertension on retinal capillary microvasculature using optical coherence tomographic angiography. Chua J, Chin CWL, Hong J, Chee ML, Le TT, Ting DSW, Wong TY, Schmetterer L. J Hypertens. 2019 Mar;37(3):572-580.

CorneaNet: fast segmentation of cornea OCT scans of healthy and keratoconic eyes using deep learning. Dos Santos VA, Schmetterer L, Stegmann H, Pfister M, Messner A, Schmidinger G, Garhofer G, Werkmeister RM. Biomed Opt Express. 2019 Jan 17;10(2):622-64.

Quantitative analysis of choriocapillaris in non-human primates using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA). Tan B, Chua J, Barathi VA, Baskaran M, Chan A, Lin E, Ang M, Klose G, Schmetterer L. Biomed Opt Express. 2018 Dec 21;10(1):356-371.

Long-Term Shape, Curvature, and Depth Changes of the Lamina Cribrosa after Trabeculectomy. Kadziauskienė A, Jašinskienė E, Ašoklis R, Lesinskas E, Rekašius T, Chua J, Cheng CY, Mari JM, Girard MJA, Schmetterer L. Ophthalmology. 2018 Nov;125(11):1729-1740.

Anterior segment optical coherence tomography.
Ang M, Baskaran M, Werkmeister RM, Chua J, Schmidl D, Aranha Dos Santos V, Garhöfer G, Mehta JS, Schmetterer L. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2018 Sep;66:132-156.

Retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with type 1 diabetes with no or mild diabetic retinopathy. Fondi K, Wozniak PA, Howorka K, Bata AM, Aschinger GC, Popa-Cherecheanu A, Witkowska KJ, Hommer A, Schmidl D, Werkmeister RM, Garhöfer G, Schmetterer L. Diabetologia. 2017 Aug;60(8):1534-1540.

Ultrahigh-resolution OCT imaging of the human cornea. Werkmeister RM, Sapeta S, Schmidl D, Garhöfer G, Schmidinger G, Aranha Dos Santos V, Aschinger GC, Baumgartner I, Pircher N, Schwarzhans F, Pantalon A, Dua H, Schmetterer L. Biomed Opt Express. 2017 Jan 30;8(2):1221-1239.

Effect of a matrix therapy agent on corneal epithelial healing after standard collagen cross-linking in patients with keratoconus: A randomized clinical trial. Bata AM, Witkowska KJ, Wozniak PA, Fondi K, Schmidinger G, Pircher N, Szegedi S, Aranha Dos Santos V, Pantalon A, Werkmeister RM, Garhofer G, Schmetterer L, Schmidl D. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Oct 1;134(10):1169-1176.

Estimating retinal blood flow velocities by optical coherence tomography. Seidel G, Aschinger G, Singer C, Herzog SA, Weger M, Haas A, Werkmeister RM, Schmetterer L, Garhöfer G. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Oct 1;134(10):1104-1110.

Retinal oxygen extraction in humans. Werkmeister RM, Schmidl D, Aschinger G, Doblhoff-Dier V, Palkovits S, Wirth M, Garhöfer G, Linsenmeier RA, Leitgeb RA, Schmetterer L. Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 27;5:15763.

Doppler optical coherence tomography. Leitgeb RA, Werkmeister RM, Blatter C, Schmetterer L. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2014 Jul;41:26-43.

Measurement of tear film thickness using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. Werkmeister RM, Alex A, Kaya S, Unterhuber A, Hofer B, Riedl J, Bronhagl M, Vietauer M, Schmidl D, Schmoll T, Garhöfer G, Drexler W, Leitgeb RA, Groeschl M, Schmetterer L. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Aug 15;54(8):5578-83.

A randomised double-masked trial comparing the visual outcome after treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Krebs I, Schmetterer L, Boltz A, Told R, Vécsei-Marlovits V, Egger S, Schönherr U, Haas A, Ansari-Shahrezaei S, Binder S; MANTA Research Group. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Mar;97(3):266-71.

Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma. Cherecheanu AP, Garhofer G, Schmidl D, Werkmeister R, Schmetterer L. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2013 Feb;13(1):36-42.