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Tuesday, 28 Mar, 2023

Duke-NUS study: Early morning university classes correlate with poor sleep and academic performance

  • Duke-NUS sleep scientists’ analyses show associations between early classes, less sleep, poor attendance and reduced grade point average.
  • Studies in secondary and junior college students have shown that later start times can have positive impacts on grades.


SINGAPORE, 28 March 2023 – Digital data from university students in Singapore suggest they could be getting better grades if their classes started later. The findings, from tens of thousands of students, were published by Duke-NUS Medical School researchers and colleagues in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.

Research in recent years has shown that postponing the start time of high schools improves the amount of sleep that students get and reduces their sleepiness during school hours. But findings are mixed about whether this has a positive impact on grades.

To determine the impact specifically on university students, Associate Professor Joshua Gooley, from Duke-NUS’ Neuroscience & Behavioural Disorders Programme and colleagues used student Wi-Fi connection data, log-ins to university digital learning platforms, and activity data from special sensing watches to conduct large-scale monitoring of class attendance and sleep behaviour of tens of thousands of university students.

“We implemented new methods that allow large-scale monitoring of class attendance and sleep behaviour by analysing students’ classroom Wi-Fi connection data and their interactions with digital learning platforms,” said Dr Yeo Sing Chen, first author of the study and a Duke-NUS PhD graduate.

From the data, the researchers found that early class start times were associated with lower attendance, with many students regularly sleeping past the start of such classes. When students did attend an early class, they lost about an hour of sleep. Morning classes on more days of the week were also associated with a lower grade point average.

Assoc Prof Joshua Gooley and Dr Yeo Sing Chen

Associate Professor Joshua Gooley (left) and Dr Yeo Sing Chen (right)

“If the goal of formal education is to position our students to succeed in the classroom and workforce, why are we forcing many university students into the bad decision of either skipping morning class to sleep more or attending class while sleep-deprived?” asked Assoc Prof Gooley. “The take-home message from our study is that universities should reconsider mandatory early morning classes.”

The researchers drew insights using the Wi-Fi connection logs of 23,391 students to find out if early morning classes were associated with lower attendance. They then compared the data with six weeks of watch-derived activity data from a subset of 181 students to determine if the students were sleeping instead of attending early morning classes.

They also analysed activity data with the day and night patterns of digital learning platform logins of 39,458 students to determine if early morning classes were associated with waking up earlier and getting less sleep. Finally, they studied the grades of 33,818 students and the number of morning classes these students were taking to determine if it impacted their grade point average.

The team is now investigating differences between class attendance, sleep, wellbeing and academic performance between early birds and night owls. “We expect to find that evening-type students will be at a learning disadvantage in early morning classes and have lower class attendance, shorter sleep, poorer mental health and lower grades compared with their peers,” said Assoc Prof Gooley.


Yeo, S.C., Lai, C.K.Y., Tan, J. et al. Early morning university classes are associated with impaired sleep and academic performance. Nat Hum Behav (2023).

For media enquires, please contact Dionne Seah, Duke-NUS Communications.